Author Topic: Where laukika anumaana is used on shaastra-s?  (Read 505 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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Where laukika anumaana is used on shaastra-s?
« on: March 01, 2015, 01:55:45 PM »
Where laukika anumaana is used on shaastra-s?

      This does not mean laukika anumaana or perception based reasoning is not there in Brahmasutra. The application of it is different. laukika anumaana or scientific reasoning is used not to establish Vedanta because of the above stated objections. laukika anumaanam can not prove Vedantic teaching since laukika anumaana deals with data from anaatma and Vedantic teaching is related to aatma. It is equally important to recognize that laukika anumaana cannot disprove Vedantic teaching either since it is not accessible to laukika anumaanam. But some philosophers, particularly naastika daarshanika-s used laukika anumaanam to disprove Vedanta. It is immediately clear from the above understanding that they have used laukika anumaana wrongly in trying to disprove Vedanta. That implies that there is some fallacy in their inference when they use laukika anumaana which is based on anaatma to disprove alaukika vishhayam or entity. In saadhana pa~nchakam Shankara says:

      vaakyaarthashca vichaaryataam shrutishiraH pakshaH samaashriiyataam.h |
      dustarkaat suviramyataam shrutimataH tarko.anusandhiiyataam.h | |
      Use of laukika anumaanam in Vedantic field, Shankara calls it as dus tarkaH or shushhka tarkaH. The proper tarka or reasonings should be scriptural data based.

      Therefore a Vedantin uses lukika anumaana only to show the fallacy of the laukika anumaana used by other philosophers. Thus Brahmasutra uses laukika anumaanam not to prove Vedanta but to disprove other philosophies that use laukika anumaana in their arguments against Vedanta. Thus laukika anumaana is used in Brahmasutra not to prove Vedanta is logical but to prove Vedanta is not illogical. The truth is Vedanta is neither logical nor illogical, it is beyond the realm of logic.

      There is a second use for laukika anumaanam. The philosophers of the naastika darshanams, since they do not believe in the shaastra, use the laukika anumaana to arrive at the truth of the aatmaa or the truth of the world. A Vedantin wants to establish that the truth can never be arrived at using laukika anumaana. To accomplish that he uses similar laukika anumaana to disprove or dismiss all the conclusions of the naastika daarshanika-s. This is because shaastriiya anumaana cannot be used for naastika-s as they do not accept shaastra as the pramaaNa. Hence Vedantin uses laukika anumaana to disprove all the naastika philosophies. Thus limitations of laukika anumaana or scientific reasoning should be understood when applied to Vedantic knowledge. It is said that

      achintyaaH khalu ye bhaavaaH na taa.nstarkena yojayet.h |
      apratishhThita tarkeNa kastiirNassa.nshayaambudhim ||
      In the creation there are many things which are beyond logic and science. To expect everything to fall within the scientific logic is to show shortsightedness. Every scientist must be humble enough to understand that there are things which are beyond the scope of science. Hence one should not apply the scientific logic to those that are beyond logic. There can be always a person who has superior intellect and who can provide a logic superior to a previous one. Hence by using the logic improperly (apratishhTita tarkeNa) no one has solved or gone beyond the ocean of doubts. That is, the problem can never be resolved beyond any doubt.

      Hence limitation of scientific logic or laukika anumaanam in Brahmavidya should be understood. It is used in Brahmasutra only to establish that Vedanta is not illogical and to disprove all the naastika systems of philosophies such as Jainism, Buddhism etc., which do not accept the validity of Veda as pramaaNa, but never to establish the validity of Vedanta philosophy, per sec. Vedantic conclusions are arrived at using only shaastriiya anumana or alaukika anumaana.

      End of anumaana prakriyaa.

      From the next topic on we will dive into Shankara Bhaasya starting with adhyaasa bhaashhya which forms an introduction to his bhaashhya.