Author Topic: Degrees of adhyaasa in aastika darshaNam-s  (Read 429 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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Degrees of adhyaasa in aastika darshaNam-s
« on: March 01, 2015, 02:10:58 AM »
Degrees of adhyaasa in aastika darshaNam-s

     
      Now, the difference between the puurvapakshii and advaitin is concerning to what extent this adhyaasa has taken place. It is not the existence of adhyaasa but to the degree this adhyaasa occurs. Here the different philosophers disagree. Let us take for example the adhyaasa related to 'I am a mortal'( anityatvam), 'I am a doer' (kartR^itvam), and 'I am an enjoyer'(bhoktR^itvam). A nyaayavaisheshhika says that mortality is not a fact but is due to a superimposition or adhyaasa and the truth is 'I am immortal', whereas I am a doer, kartaa and I am enjoyer or bhoktaa are not errors but facts only. Thus according to these philosophers, the first one only is adhyaasa and the other two are facts. Sankhya and yoga philosophers, on the other hand, says 'aham anityaH' and 'aham kartaa' both are adhyaasa but 'aatmaa is a bhoktaa' is a fact and there is no adhyaasa in that. An advaitin says all the three are adhyaasa.

      naadatte kasyachitpaapam na chaiva sukR^itam vibhuH |
      aGYaanenaavR^itam GYaanam tena muhyanti jantavaH ||
     
      hantaa chenmanyate hantum hatashchenmanyate hatam |
      ubhau tou na vijaaniitaH naaya.n hanti na hanyate ||
     
      The first sloka is from Geeta (V-15) and the second one is from KaThopanishad[I:ii:19]. Because one is not a doer he neither acquires merits or demerits. Only because of ignorance-born delusion one thinks that one is a doer and enjoyer. One thinks one is a killer and the other one is killed, neither one knows the fact, there is neither a killer (kartR^itvam) nor the one who undergoes killing (bhoktR^itvam). Hence in addition to anityatvam the kartR^itvam and bhoktR^itvam are also due to adhyaasa.

      Hence there is no disagreement in agreeing that there is aatmaa-anaatmaa adhyaasa. Only in the extent of the adhyaasa there is a disagreement between different schools of philosophy. Hence aatmaa-anaatmaa adhyaasa is possible and is there.

      With this, the third and fourth of the six topics that is adhyaasa sha~Nkaa samaadhaanam and adhyaasa sambhaavanaa are completed.

      Next we will discuss adhyaasa pramaaNam.

      For those who are studying with me, here are the questions in Chapter III up to this point. Try to answer and cross check the answers with the notes.