Author Topic: Vishhaya Vaakyas for suutra one  (Read 489 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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Vishhaya Vaakyas for suutra one
« on: February 27, 2015, 12:59:43 PM »
Vishhaya Vaakyas for suutra one


      On that basis, what is the vishhaya vaakya for suutra one? There are three Upanishhadic sentences on which this suutra is based: 1. First and the foremost one is from taittiriiya upanishad 3-1. 'tad vijij~naasaasva' based on which Brahmasuutra says 'athaa to brahma jij~naasaa'. In that Upanishad, the student 'bhR^igu' is being told by his teacher, VaruNa, that he should know or conduct Brahman inquiry, if he wants peace, or fulfillment and security, which are the basic needs of anyone's life. If the problems in life are to be eliminated or samsaara to be removed, the teacher says, know Brahman or inquire into the nature of Brahman. In the Upanishhad, the statement is in imperative mood - vijij~naasasva - 'you should know' - indicating that there is no other alternative to solve the problem at hand than knowledge of Brahman. People say in Kaliyuga it is very difficult to follow any yoga, and it is enough to chant the name of the Lord - naama sa.nkiirthanam and that will take one beyond the ocean of samsaara. Here VaruNa in the Upanishad and Vyaasa in Brahmasuutra are very specific. One should know Brahman or one should inquire into the nature of Brahman. Hence 'chanting of the name of the Lord' may be helpful to quiten the mind so that Brahman inquiry can be done - It is the preparatory to the knowledge and hence for Moksha, but it is not the primary means or sufficient means to gain the knowledge required for Moksha. Upanishhad makes it very clear that if one wants Moksha - tad vijij~naasasva, 'you should know Brahman'.

      Nowhere in the Upanishad it says that this is only relevant in kRAta or tretaa or dvaapara yuga-s but in a kaliyuga, knowledge is not required and chanting is enough or one can get liberated with some kunDalini raising, etc. Upanishhad does not specify any specific yuga or time or place. From this it is very clear that irrespective of what yuga it is - for liberation j~naanam is the only means since problem is centered on adhyaasa or error which is based on ignorance. From this it is clear the Brahmasuutras and the Vedanta teaching that it points out are eternally true since they talk about eternal knowledge and not temporal or relative knowledge.

      The second vishhaya vaakyam is from Chandogya Upanishad 8-7-1. '...saH vijij~naasitavyaH...' Here also.'..tavyaH' is an imperative statement implying that 'you have to know' - no short cuts. It is similar to that of taittiriiya statement. Only difference is in T.U. the word 'tat' is in neuter gender and in Ch. U. it is 'saH' in masculine gender - tat refers to Brahman and saH refers to paramaatma, both are one and the same, from the point of the seeker - sat chit aananda swaruupam.

      The third vishhaya vaakyam is from Brihadaaranyaka Upanishhad 2-4-5. This occurs in the famous Maitreyii Braahmanam where sage-husband YaJNavalkya while teaching his wife Maitreyi provides a long discourse with the central theme that 'aatmanastu kamaaya sarvam priyam bhavati', giving a big list saying that nobody loves anybody. Everybody loves oneself alone. Hence 'self alone is the object of love and since everybody loves only that which is the source of maximum happiness, 'self1 alone is the ananda swaruupaH - happiness or bliss itself. Whatever is the object of love is of the nature of ananda or happiness. Upanishhad says 'aatma alone is loved by everyone'.

      How do we know that? When crucial things come we are ready to drop one by one for the sake of oneself. A person disowns his own children, the moment the child disobeys him. Husband disowns wife, wife disowns husband. Both owning and disowning are only for one's happiness. What one is longing for is one's happiness and Upanishhad says that happiness is one's own self.

      Hence discovering eternal happiness requires self-discovery. Having presented this elaborately YaaJNavalkya tells his wife Maitreyi 'aatmaa vaa are drashhTavyaH, shrotavyaH, manthavyaH, nidhidhyaasavyaH' - aatma alone has to be seen, heard, thought about, and contemplated upon - therefore aatman inquiry should be done.

      Thus in all three Upanishhads - taittiriiya, chhaandogya and bR^ihadaaraNyaka - Brahman inquiry is emphasized. In keeping with those Upanishhadic portions Vyaasaachaarya condenses all of them and says - athaato brahma jij~naasaa.

      The suutra is grammatically incomplete and to emphasize the inquiry should be done and to complete it grammatically we add at the end of the suutra a word - karthavyaa. Hence the full suutra should read as: 'athaato brahma jij~naasaaa kartavyaa', thereafter, therefore, Brahman inquiry should be done

      This is the direct meaning of the suutra. This direct meaning we revise a little bit. If one has to do Brahman inquiry, it cannot be done independently since Brahman is not available as an object in front of us for one to study - like the study of microbiology or chemistry etc. Hence independent inquiry of Brahman cannot be done. We need to use the Upanishhad microscope'. In one of the mantras it is said 'sarvaM brahmopanishhadam' - Brahman is given the title as aupanishhadam to indicate that Brahman can be inquired using Vedanta. Hence we can replace the Brahman inquiry with the word 'vedantic inquiry' - Hence Brahma jij~naasaa is equal to 'vedaanta shaastra vichaaraH' - Hence the suutra will mean as 'athaato vedanta vichaara kartavyaH' - for what purpose? - for Brahma j~naanam - for the knowledge of Brahman. Hence the revised meaning of the suutra is 'thereafter, therefore, vedantic inquiry should be done for Brahma j~naanam'. This is the revised direct meaning of the first suutra.

      Some technical considerations: Now we will make some more revisions. We should remember that Brahmasuutra is nyaayaprasthaanam - it is meant for analyzing everything logically. Hence every suutra should present a logical statement - a nyaaya vaakyam. Hence the suutra must be presented technically as nyaaya vaakyam or anumaana vaakyam. (please refer to Ch. 2 anumaana pramaaNa for the analysis of anumaana that involve the four factors - paksha, saadhya, hetu and dR^ishhTanta -ex. parvataH agnimaan dhuumavatvaat yathaa mahaanase). Hence the question is what is then the anumaana vaakyam that corresponds to the first suutra. We can express that in the standard format similar to: parvataH agnimaan, dhuumavatvaat, yathaa mahaanase | vedaanta shaastram aarambhaniiyam, anubandha chatushhTayavatvaat, yathaa dharmashaastravat |vedaanta shaastram is the paksha, aarambhaniiyam, should be inquired into is the saadhyam and hetu is anubandha chatushhTayavatvaat, because it has got the four-fold factor (mostly here the emphasis on prayojanam or benefit being the Moksha). The example is dharmashaastravat, just as the dharmashhastra. For this anumaana vaakyam there should be a vyaapti vaakyam (similar to yatra yatra dhuumaH tatra tatra agniH- a statement of coexistence). For the above anumaana vaakyam we can express the vyaapti vaakyam as - yatra yatra anubandha chatushhTayavatvam tatra tatra aarambhaniiyatvam - all those shaastraa-s are worth studying since we get prayojanam or benefit. For Brahmasuutra the benefit is the moksha itself. This is the revised meaning for the first suutra.

      With this, the general analysis containing both the direct meaning and the implied meaning of the first suutra is completed.

      Next we will take up the word by word meaning and their analysis.