Author Topic: Analysis of fourth word to be added - kartavyaH  (Read 480 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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Analysis of fourth word to be added - kartavyaH
« on: February 27, 2015, 12:47:42 PM »
Analysis of fourth word to be added - kartavyaH


      We have completed analysis of all three words of suutra. However, there is a fourth word which we have to supply to complete sentence.

      The word is kartavyaa. kartavyaa means should be done. That is inquiry should be done for aatmaj~naanam. Since the word is implied,vyaasaachaarya omits the word for brevity. By using this word, it is implied that there is a vidhi or a rule prescribed in the upanishhads - aatmaa vaa are drashhTavyaH shrotavyaH, mantavyaH, nididhyaasitavyaH - where the ending of each involve - tavyaH, indicative of imperative mood meaning 'should be done'. The three are replaced by one word 'kartavyaH'. kartavyaH should therefore be understood as shrotavyaH, mantavyaH and nididhyaasitavyaH. Hence one should do Brahman inquiry means one should do shravaNam, mananam and nididhyaasanam.

      Thus the final expanded meaning of the suutra is 'saadhana chatushhTaya sampattyanantaram brahma-j~naanaaya vedaanta shravaNa, manana, nididhyaasanaani kartavyaani - yasmaat brahma-j~naanaat eva mokshaH na tu karmaNaa '. That is 'after acquiring the four-fold qualifications, one should do shravaNa, manana, nididyaasana of Vedanta for the sake of brahma-j~naana because brahma-j~naanam alone gives moksha, not karma'.

      Now suppose anyone asks Vyaasaachaarya, 'what should I do?' Then Vyaasaachaarya will ask a counter question - 'Have you already acquired saadhana chatushhTaya sampatti - the four-fold qualifications - in this life or in the past life?' - If you already have like Nachiketa, then you can begin the inquiry into the nature of Brahman using Vedanta as a tool. If not, my advice is to gain the saadhana chatushhTaya sampatti by following the karma yoga and/or bhakti yoga. This can be more easily done by following rules laid down in puurvamiimaa.nsa for the karma and upaasanaa. If one has not studied the puurvamiimaa.nsaa, then one can take the help of the priests who have studied puurvamiimaa.nsaa and follow the rituals for karma and upaasanaa. What is required is the saadhana chatushhTaya sampatti, but how it is acquired is of less significance. Following the strict rules laid down in puurvamiimaa.nsaa which involve do's and don'ts one can gain mental discipline required that involve shama, dama, etc. puurvamiimaa.nsaa helps but does not guarantee that one will acquire the saadhana chatushhTaya sampatti. Karma yoga and bhakti yoga are the most efficient methods to acquire the saadhana chatushhTaya sampatti. We hear people complaining that "I have been doing meditation and studying Vedanta for so many years and nothing is happening to me?" - The problem is not with Vedanta but with the lack of appropriate mental framework needed for the inquiry of Brahman. It is like my studying the book on 'Quantum Mechanics' and complain that I have not understood anything from that even though I read it many times. It is not the fault of the book but lack of the prerequisites to study the book. Hence Vyaasaachaarya advises us to go back to our fundamentals and gain the prerequisite qualifications so that when Brahman inquiry is done with that preparatory mind through vedaanta vichaara, one can gain the knowledge of one's own self.

      Now the next question is, 'does that mean we should all stop Vedantic study now?' Qualified people are very rare and the majority of us are unqualified and therefore there is no use of continuing the study of the 'Notes on Brahmasutra'. We should stop the notes on Brahmasuutra and what we need now is the "Notes on Jaimini sutra" for our study from the next week on.

      The intention is not that. The idea is we should continue our study of Vedanta while we continue to acquire, increase or intensify our saadhana chatushhTaya sampatti. As the acquisition of saadhana chatushhTaya sampatti intensifies, the study of Vedanta becomes more and more relevant or significant or meaningful to our own understanding of the nature of ourselves or Brahman. Without that, it will become only an academic study. But even then, let it start as an academic study. However, as I acquire slowly the four-fold qualifications, even the so-called academic study will become very relevant for my life. A causal approach becomes a serious approach as the interest develops. A simple example is like a fellow who is trying to connect an electric bulb to a receptacle. If the wires are already 'live', as soon as the bulb makes a proper contact, it glows instantly and the light emanated from the bulb removes the darkness at the very instant the bulb made the contact. Suppose it is not a live wire, since no electricity is passing through the wires.

      Connecting the bulb will not make much difference in terms of removing the darkness in the room. However that action is not in vain. One can go back and slowly turn the switch on to pass the electric current through the wires. The switch is like the modern 'dimmer switch'. Nothing will happen even after switch is on. One has to turn slowly to higher power to get the light from the bulb.

      The previously connected bulb, which was not glowing up to now, will start glowing to its full glory, the moment the wires become fully alive. He does not have to reconnect the bulb again. Vedanta knowledge is like fixing the bulb needed to remove the darkness. If the saadhanaa chatushhTaya sampatti is already there, then Vedanta knowledge will help glow the light of knowledge that removes the darkness of the ignorance. If not, gaining the Vedanta knowledge will not be a waste; it helps slowly as we acquire the saadhana chatushhTaya sampatti through karma and bhakti yoga. As our mind becomes purer and purer by karma and bhakti yoga, the light of Vedantic knowledge will intensify to convert j~naanam into vij~naanam, praj~naa into sthirapraj~naa, paroksha j~naanam into aparoksha j~naanam, pratibandhaka j~naanam into apratibandhaka j~naanam. Hence we can continue our Vedantic study and the weekly Notes on Brahmasutra and continue our aashrama dharma also, that is our obligatory duties at various levels including personal, family and society levels. Thus on one side we should refine our qualifications and on the other side shravaNa, manana and nididhyaasana should continue.

      With this the word analysis of the first suutra is completed.

      Next will be the conclusion of the first suutra with odds and ends !