Author Topic: Objection 1  (Read 447 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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Objection 1
« on: February 26, 2015, 01:42:09 PM »
Objection 1

      A puurvapakshii comes forward and comes with a suggestion for the meaning. Shankara has interpreted the janmaadi as the three-fold aspect, janma, sthiti and layam or janmaadi trayam. Puurvapakshi says that there is another book known as 'niruktam', the science of etymology, authored by Yaaska'. In that, Yaaska points out that every object in the creation goes through six-fold phenomenon and not three. He calls them as ' shhaD bhaava vikaaraaH ', six-fold change for objects or padaartham. While enumerating these six, Yaaska starts with 'janma'. He says: jaayate, asti, vardhate, vipariNamate, apakshiiyate, vinashyati', birth, existence, growth, modification, decay and death. From that nirukta we came to know that every object in the universe goes through janmaadi shaTkam. Hence the suggestion of the puurvapakshii is that in the suutra, janmaadi means janmaadi shaTkam, the six-fold aspect starting from janma in tune with Yaaska's nirukta rather than janmaadi trayam, the three-fold aspect, that Shankara proposes.

      Shankara gives two answers for this objection.

      First Yaska is a human being. Hence 'niruktam' is paurushheyam or authored by a human. Hence the author can only talk about objects within the creation and cannot discuss the creation of the whole universe since the human intellect does not have an access to study the jagat kaaraNam or the cause of the whole universe. For example, Yaska cannot talk about the origin of aakaasha or space. He can speculate about the origin but that is not pramaaNa or valid means of knowledge. Hence his discussion can only be confined to bhautika prapa~ncha or objects within the creation. Hence the six-fold aspect that he discusses concerns only about the objects within the universe. Here in the suutra we are discussing the origin of the whole universe that includes the space and even time. Hence Yaska's statement is irrelevant here.

      For this puurvapakshii comes forward with counter statement. Why one should dismiss Yaska text is as not valid pramaaNam? It can be a valid pramaaNam just as smR^iti (like Bhagavad geeta) text since it is based on shruti and is not his intellectual product. Then, even though it is paurusheyam, authored by a human, it gets validity as pramaaNa similar to apaurusheya text. Hence Yaaska's statement about the six-fold aspect can be taken as referencing to the entire cosmos rather than just to objects within the cosmos. Hence Yaska's statement should be relevant here.

      For this Shankara says, even if Yaska's statement is taken as pramaaNam, it has only the borrowed validity since it is presumably based on the shruti statement. But the interpretation that is given is based on direct shruti statement, which has intrinsic validity and not the borrowed validity. Shruti talks about janmaadi trayam or the three-fold aspect only and not the six-fold aspect. The taittiriiya upanishhad mantra above very clearly states the three-fold aspect and not the six-fold aspect. This is the first answer to puurvapakshii.

      The second answer is simple. Vyasacharya has written the entire Brahmasutra for analyzing the Vedanta statements only and that is the stated purpose of the Brahmasutra. Hence it is also called vedanta suutraani or uttaramiimaa.nsa suutraani. Hence when Vyasa uses the word janmaadi', one should give the meaning in tune with Upanishads and not that in tune with Yaska's nirukta text or any other text.

      Therefore janmaadi' in the suutra should refer to the three-fold aspect involving creation, sustenance and annihilation. Then what about the six-fold modifications that Yaska talks about? Since that refers to the objects, which are within the universe, it is part of the three-fold aspect discussed in the Upanishad mantra. Hence it is included and not excluded from the three-fold aspect of the Upanishhad statement. Hence the primary meaning of the janmaadi' is the janma, sthiti and layam, and by implication it can include the six-fold aspect discussed by Yaaska.

      With this the objections of first puurvapakshii are answered.