Author Topic: Analysis of the word yataH  (Read 446 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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Analysis of the word yataH
« on: February 26, 2015, 12:05:07 PM »
Analysis of the word  yataH

      Shankara gives the meaning for yataH as yasmaat kaaraNaat, from which cause all these (the origin, sustenance and annihilation of the objectifiable universe) take place. Now the question comes, which kaaraNam the shruti is referring to? We know that cause or kaaraNam is two-fold; nimitta kaaraNam, and upaadaana kaaraNam, the intelligent, and material cause. Since Vyasacharya is talking about sR^ishhTi, sthiti and laya kaaraNam, we can say that word kaaraNam should refer to upaadaana kaaraNam or material cause. This can be seen readily as follows:

      We find in general nimitta kaaraNa or the intelligent cause is only responsible for the creation of a thing. It is not responsible for the existence and annihilation. For example, if kulaalaH, the potter, is responsible for the existence or for the survival of the pot, then one has to buy potter along with pot. If so every maker of an object then will come with the material object for its existence. Since that is not the case, nimitta kaaraNam is defined as sR^ishhTi maatra kaaraNam or cause for the creation only. Whereas the material cause is defined as sR^ishhTi, sthiti, laya kaaraNam. It is the material cause that sustains the object and into which the object merges during its destruction. In this particular suutra the word janmaadi refers to sR^ishhTi, sthiti and laya and not just to sR^ishhTi alone, the kaaraNam or cause should therefore refer to the material cause or upaadaana kaaraNam. The primary meaning of the yataH is upaadana kaaraNam.

      Now to give complete meaning of the suutra we can say - yasmaat upaadaana kaaraNaat, pratyaksha prapanchasya sR^ishhTi sthiti layaaH sambhavanti, tat upaadaana kaaraNam brahma. Because of which material cause, the origin, sustenance and annihilation of the objectifiable universe occurs, that material cause is Brahman.

      Later upon inquiry, we find that the cause of the universe or jagat kaaraNam is and has to be only one. In the case of worldly objects one can afford to have a separate nimitta kaaraNam and a separate upaadaana kaaraNam. Since we are discussing about the entire universe that includes desha and kaala, time and space, it cannot have two separate causes. (maayaakalpita desha kaala kalanaa vaichitrya chitrii kR^itam... - Shankara's dakshiNamuurti shloka). That cause which is beyond desha kaala the cause should be - ekam eva advitiiyam, one only without a second. If it has to be one, it itself should serve as upaadaana kaaraNam and nimitta kaaraNam. Hence the second implied meaning for yataH is - nimitta kaaraNam cha - the intelligent cause also. Hence the final meaning of yataH is - abhinna nimitta upaadaana kaaraNaat - non-differentiable intelligent and material cause - To put in a complete statement (one can skip this if one wants) - yasmaat abhinna nimitta upaadaana kaaraNaat asya pratyaksha prapanchasya sR^ishhTi sthiti layaaH sambavanti, tat abhinna nimitta upaadaana kaaraNaM brahma. That from which the origin, sustenance, annihilation takes place, that undifferentiable intelligent and material cause is Brahman.

      In the upanishhad statement that this suutra refers to varuNa, the teacher, told his student, bhR^igu, that (X) from which this universe originated, that (X) by which this universe is sustained and that (X) into which this universe dissolves is to be known - that is Brahman. Thus the teacher gave only taTastha lakshaNa and not swaruupa lakshaNa and it is up to bhR^igu as his homework to solve for that X.

      That is left for the student to inquire and find out what is that X. bhR^igu being an intelligent student (like us !) he goes through the process of inquiry - First he comes up with a solution -annam brahmeti vyajaanaat -annam or food is Brahman since scripture says - annaat purushhaH - since all beings are born out of food, sustained by food and goes back into food. But the teacher sends him back to inquire further. Upon further inquiry he comes up with another answer- praaNo brahmeti vyajaanaat - All these beings are born of life, sustained by life and go back into life. Further inquiry leads to - mano bramheti vyajaanaat - mind is the cause for the creation, sustenance and dissolution since when there is the mind there is the world. - vij~naanam brahmeti vyajaanaat - Intelligence is the root cause for the universe, since without intelligence universe cannot be created - But teacher sends him back to further inquiry. Ultimately this inquiry culminates with the knowledge that (T.U. 3-6) aanando brahmeti vyajaanaat.h | aanandaat hi eva khalu imaani bhuutaani jaayante | aanandena jaataani jiivanti | aanandam prayanti abhisamvishanti iti | saishhaa bhaargavii vaaruNii vidyaa | parame vyoman pratishhTitaa | ya evam veda pratitishhTati | Determined that happiness, fullness or limitlessness, aananda, is Brahman. From the limitlessness these beings are born, these beings are sustained, and into which these beings get dissolved. This is the knowledge belonging to bhR^igu and varuNa. This is established in the supreme space (its very basis). Those who know it, are fully established (in knowledge).

      Thus finally bhR^igu discovered that the X-factor, because of which origin, sustenance and dissolution takes place, is of the form aananda swaruupam brahma, is limitlessness or infiniteness or pure bliss. This is the swaruupa lakshaNam of Brahman. (Pl. Refer to the discussion before of the difference between swaruupa and taTastha lakshaNa, taTastha and swaruupa lakshaNam-s ). jagat kaaraNam is the taTastha lakshaNam of Brahman, aanandaH is the swaruupa lakshaNam of Brahman. Hence the word yataH in the suutra further means - aananda swaruupaH brahma.

      Thus three meanings are provided for the word yataH - first as the upaadaana kaaraNam, material cause then as the nimitta kaaraNam, intelligent cause and now aananda swaruupam cha, limitlessness or bliss state.

      Now recapitulating the whole meaning of the suutra - yasmaat prapanchasya abhinna nimitta upaadaana kaaraNaat aananda swaruuupaat prapanchasya sR^ishhTi sthiti layaaH sambhavanti tat abhinna nimitta upaadaana kaaraNam aananda swaruupam brahma bhavati. Thus the word yataH refers to abhinna nimitta upaadaana kaaraNam (non-differentiable material and intelligent cause) which is the taTastha (incidental) lakshaNam and aananda swaruupam which is the swaruupa (intrinsic) lakshaNam of Brahman. Primarily it indicates the taTastha lakshaNam, but indirectly it indicates the swaruupa lakshaNam also. Hence the suutra is called Brahma lakshaNa suutra.

      With this we conclude the analysis of the word yataH.