Author Topic: General Analysis  (Read 421 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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General Analysis
« on: February 24, 2015, 11:36:32 AM »
General Analysis

      This suutra is the key or important suutra based on which the entire first chapter containing 134 suutra -s is developed. This being the fourth suutra, one can consider the rest of the 130 suutra -s that follow are only an elaboration of this suutra alone. Based on this suutra only, the first chapter is named as samanvaya adhyaayaH. The second suutra - janmaad yasya yataH is the foundation suutra on which the entire Brahmasutra is based. The entire first chapter is based on this fourth suutra. Thus we find among the first four suutra -s two very important suutra -s. Thus according to a tradition if a person cannot study the entire Brahmasutra, at least one should study the first four suutra -s. The first four suutra -s put together is known as chatuH-suutrii. There are many books just dealing with these four suutra -s or chatuH-suutrii alone. In the third suutra Vyasacharya has mentioned - shaastra yonitvaat - and we saw two meanings for this - shaastra kaaraNatvaat and shaastra vishhayatvaat. Of these two, we will be taking now the second meaning for further development. shaastra vishhayatvaat means Brahman is the central theme of Vedanta shaastram.

      Now the question is how one can say that Brahman is the central theme of Vedanta shaastram? When many topics are discussed in a shaastram how can one arrive at the central theme or topic among all the topics that are discussed. Sometimes the central theme is very evident but often it is not. For example, in Bhagavat Gita, various topics, karma yoga, bhakti yoga, j~naana yoga are discussed. Krishna in fact emphasizes while discussing each one as if that particular yoga is the most important among all others. If so, what is the central theme of Bhagavat Gita? Normally a shaastra should have only one central theme and the rest of the topics become subservient to that theme. If there are more than one theme, then it is considered as a defect according to miimaa.nsaka -s, and the defect is called ' vaakya bheda doshhaH '. There is a big controversy regarding Gita as to what is the central theme - karma or bhakti or j~naana. Several scholars consider karma is the central theme while bhakti and j~naanam are subservient (in contrast to Bhagavatam where bhakti is the central theme). Shree Ramanuja emphasizes Bhakti as the central theme while karma and j~naanam are subservient, and Shree Shankara emphasizes j~naanam while the other two are subservient to j~naanam. If one includes impartially all the yoga-s, then one can say that yoga shaastra or brahmavidyaa is the central theme of the Giita. The question that remains is how does one determine which is the central theme of a given shaastra?
      If author is available or has written a commentary on his own work then the question can be easily answered. Veda-s being apaurushheyam the author is not readily available to answer. In all these cases our acharya-s have pointed that there is one method by which a central theme can be arrived at. The central theme is the one that fulfils one important condition and that is called ' samanvayaH '. It is a technical term, which will be analyzed in detail when we come to the word analysis. SamanvayaH means taatparya vishhayatvam or nearest translation to the word is consistency or a compromised meaning is 'importance'. Next question that arises is how does one know which theme enjoys the importance. The answer is it is that which fulfills six factors of proofs called ' shhaD li~Ngaani '. Vyasa says Brahman is the central theme since it fulfills the six factors of proof. The general meaning of this suutra is Brahman is the central theme of Vedanta shaastram because it enjoys the importance ( samanvaya ).

      This idea can be presented as anumaana vaakyam - brahma vedaanta shaastra vishhayaH, samanvayaat, dharmavat. Brahman is the central theme of the upanishads since it enjoys the samanvaya just as dharma in the puurvamiimaa.nsaa.