Author Topic: Discussion of samanvaya aspect  (Read 450 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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Discussion of samanvaya aspect
« on: February 24, 2015, 11:33:01 AM »
Discussion of samanvaya aspect

      First question is therefore what are those six factors or shhat li~Ngaani? Lingam means an indicator. li~Ngyate iti li~Ngam. That which indicates is li~Ngam. The shhat li~Ngaani are:

      upakrama - upasa.nhaarau abhyaasaH apuurvataa-phalam.h |
      artha-vaada upapattiH ca li~Ngyam taatparya nirNaye ||
      To establish the importance of certain topic six indicators are enumerated. The first one is upakrama upasamhaarau - which means the identity or oneness of the theme at the beginning and in the end. The second one is abhyaasaH or repetition - that which is repeated must be important. Third one is apuurvataa, whatever enjoys newness, that which is not known. The fourth one is phalam - fruitfulness or benefit, something is important only if it is fruitful or useful. The fifth one is arthavaadaH, or stutiH or glorification, whatever that is glorified must be important. Finally upapattiH, reason or logic. Whatever fulfills the logic is of importance and whatever is illogical or irrational or unreasonable cannot be the central theme.

      These are the six factors. In tradition the commentators take one example for analysis and the standard example is the sixth chapter of Chandogya Upanishad which is called tat tvam asi prakaraNam. It is considered as the model chapter. When we apply the six factors to this chapter, we come out with the conclusion that Brahman is the central theme of the chapter.

      The first factor is upakrama upasamhaara li~Ngam, that is, the relation to the topic at the beginning and end of the chapter. The tat tvam asi prakaraNam begins and ends with the discussion of Brahman. - sad eva saumya idam agra aasiit. ekam eva advitiiyam - "Hay good-looking one ! Existence alone was there in the beginning and it is one without the second" - thus the beginning of prakaraNa is revealing the nature of Brahman. The chapter ends with the statements - aitad aatmyam idam sarvam | tat satyam | saH aatmaa | tat tvam asi shwetaketo | This entire universe is Brahman. That is the truth. That is aatmaa. Oh! Swetaketu! that thou art. Thus Brahman which is the same as aatman is the theme in the beginning and the end.

      The second factor is abhyaasa or repetition. In this chapter of Chandogya the teacher Uddalaka gives several examples to illustrate the point and in the end of each example the same statements - aitad aatmyam idam sarvam | tat satyam | saH aatmaa | tat tvam asi shwetaketo | - are repeated. It is repeated nine times each time taking different examples, to indicate that the statements are not a casual statements but have great significance requiring such extended repetition. Hence the tat tvam asi is considered as the essential teaching as mahaavaakya or aphorism.

      The third factor is apuurvataa - new topic. Vedanta shaastram reveals Brahman only, which is new entity since it is not only unknown but also cannot be known by any other means or pramaaNam. What is considered as new? The definition of what constitutes new or apuurvataa is pramaaNaantara avedyam, apuurvatvam. A thing is new if it is not known or cannot be known through all other instruments of knowledge. na tatra chakshuH gachchhati na vaak gachchhati no manaH gachchhati, I cannot know Brahman through the eyes, through the speech nor by process of analysis of thinking. I cannot even know Brahman through karmakaanDa or puurvamiimaa.nsaa also. Brahman is outside the scope of karma - na karmanaa na prajayaa dhanena tyagena eke amR^itatva maanasuH - says the shruti. Brahman is revealed only by Vedanta - Hence it is apuurva vishhayaH or new knowledge that is not gained by any other means. Hence apuurvata li~Nga or factor is satisfied. This apuurvata is also indicated in the sixth chapter of Chandogya.

      Here the teacher asks the student to bring a lump of salt and dissolve it in a cup of water. Then he asks the student to taste the water at the top, in the middle and from the bottom of the cup. The student after tasting, says the water is saltish everywhere. When the teacher asks the student if he can see the salt in the water, the students says no. He knows that there was the lump of salt in water since he himself added it but he can see where the salt is. Since he could taste salt all-over, the water is pervaded by something other than water, since he is experiencing it yet he cannot see it any where in the water and it is imperceptible to the eyes. Having given this example the teacher says to the student - one knows the body is bundle of matter, just like a statue which is also made up of pa~nchabhuutaa -s. Yet one experiences the body as conscious entity unlike the statue out there, just as the water is saltish. Just as the water is pervaded by something other than water to make it saltish, the body is pervaded by something other than matter to make it conscious. That extra something makes the water saltish, there is extra something that makes the body alive and conscious. Just as one can not see that lump of salt that makes the water saltish, similarly one cannot see that which makes the body alive and conscious. What is that something that makes the matter enliven. The teacher says - sad eva saumya idam agra aasiit, ekam eva advitiiyam - that which exists that which is conscious is there from the beginning before the creation. It is one with out the second. That Brahman you are - tat tvam asi swetaketo. So Brahman pervades the body - atra eva khila sat - na nibhaalayate - My dear boy - there is no need to go in search of Brahman. He is right inside you as the very essence of your life, the essence of your existence and consciousness and is imperceptible to the senses, mind and intellect. You are that. Thus by this example, the teacher proves that Brahman is pratyaksha agocharam or pramaaNaantara agamyam hence apuurvam brahman. Brahman cannot be perceived or thought about. He cannot be known by any other pramaaNa and can be known only through Vedanta pramaaNa. This is the apuurvataa li~Ngam or factor that is established.

      Thus Vyasa established that 1. Brahman is the subject matter of Vedanta, 2) it is unique subject matter and 3) Brahman is known through Vedanta alone and not by any other pramaaNam. Conversely, looking from Vedanta point, it is the unique pramaaNam for Brahman. The converse is established because other than shabda pramaaNa the other pramaaNa essentially rests on pratyaksha in one way or the other. Since Brahman cannot be perceived, it can be known only by shabda pramaaNa and Vedanta is the rightful shabda pramaaNa. Thus Vedanta is unique pramaaNam and Brahman is unique prameyam.

      The first part, Vedanta is unique pramaaNam is established by shaastra yonitvaat and the second part Brahman is the unique prameyam is established by tat tu samanvayaat, since samanvaya requires as a part of the shhad li~Nga uniqueness aspect. Thus the fourth suutra ' tat tu samanvayaat ' is the converse of the third suutra ' shaastra yonitvaat '. Thus fourth suutra corroborates the third suutra.

      The fourth li~Ngam is phalam. It is common understanding that wherever phalam is mentioned that aspect should get primary importance otherwise it is of secondary importance. It is like the bottom line. In the Upanishads we find the statement ' brahmavit aapnoti param ' if one knows Brahman one gets eternal liberation or moksha. Hence the importance is given to brahmaj~naanam. If we examine the sixth chapter of Chandogya, there is a statement 'tasya taavad eva chiram yaavat na vimokshye atha sampatsya iti |' That is brahmaj~naani will get jiivan mukti and at the time of death he will get videha mukti. Thus both jiivan mukti phalam and videha mukti phalam are mentioned from brahmaj~naanam. Hence Brahman is central theme of Vedanta.

      The fifth factor is arthavaadaH or glorification. In the Upanishad-s the advaitic understanding is glorified by pointing that ' eka vij~naanena sarva vij~naanam bhavati ', by knowing one, one knows everything. brahma j~naani will become sarva j~naani. The word ' sarvaj~naani ' has to be understood. It does not mean he will start knowing immediately quantum mechanics or C++ language etc. sarvaj~naanam means sarva aatma j~naanam. He gets the knowledge of the essence of everything, which is as good as knowing everything.

      Thus by glorifying brahmaj~naani as sarvaj~naH, the sixth chapter indirectly glorifies Brahman only. Glorification of brahmaj~naani is the same as the glorification of Brahman since ' brahmavit brahma eva bhavati ' knower of Brahman becomes Brahman. Not only brahma j~nanam is glorified, the knowledge of all others are condemned in the sense that they do not give moksha or freedom from ignorance. In Kathopanishad (2-1-10) it was said " mR^ityoH saH mR^ityum aapnoti yaH iha naanaa eva pashyati ", one who is in duality he will travel from death to death. The one who dies without gaining brahma j~naanam he is considered as unfortunate person, saH kR^ipaNaH.

      Whereas one who dies after brahmaj~naanam he alone is braahmaNaH ( sa eva braahmaNaH - Bri. Upa.), implying that all the aj~naanii -s are called abrahmaNaH. In fact in all other knowledge, the more one knows the more alpa j~naani one becomes. The more and more one specializes in any objective sciences the more and more one recognizes that what he knows is very very small in comparison to what is left to know. He feels more and more ignorant in relation to what he knows. He will never feel that there is nothing more to learn. He will feel more and more inadequate and hence feels more and more humble. On the other hand a brahma j~naani feels he has learned what need to be learned and that there is nothing more to learn. - yat j~naatvaa na param j~neyam'. He has accomplished what need to be accomplished in life, kR^ita kR^ityaH. Thus brahmaj~naanam is glorified and in contrast anyaj~naanam is criticized - both come under arthavaadaH, glorification of brahmaj~naanm. It includes brahmaj~naana stuti and anyaj~naana nindaa.

      The final factor is upapattiH - the upanishhat wants to show that it is not illogical. It is not dogmatic or irrational or based on blind belief. Brahma satyam and jagat is mithya giving a logical support.

      The upanishad -s reveal Brahman is kaaraNam and the jagat or the world is kaaryam. It logically shows kaaraNam alone is satyam because it has independent existence. Whereas kaaryam has no independent existence. Hence upanishhat makes an anumaana vaakyam - brahma satyam kaaraNatvaat, jagat mithyaa kaaryatvaat. Upanishad gives an example also for this in the same sixth chapter of Chandogya Up. - vaachaarambhaNam vikaaro naamadheyam mR^ittikaa eva satyam, when there is a pot, we know that clay alone is satyam and there is no such substance called pot. Pot is mere name and form ( naama and ruupa ). We need to note mR^ittika eva satyam - eva meaning alone - the clay alone is satyam - by using the word eva or alone, the upanishhat indirectly says the pot is mithyaa. If there are two people and if I say pointing to one of them, this one alone is intelligent, it implies that the other one is not intelligent or he is dumb. mR^ittika eva satyam means the pot etc mR^itpinda -s are only mR^ittikaa vikaaraaH, the products of clay. The products etc. are vaachaarambhanam naamadheyam, they are only name-sake existent.

      Thus Upanishads logically shows using several examples like this (actually three examples are given) the kaaraNa satyatvam and kaarya mithyaatvam. Through that upanishads reveal the brahma satyatvam and jagat mithyaatvam - and that is upapattiH, the sixth factor which is the logical factor.

      Thus by taking the sixth chapter of Chandogya Upanishad as the model, it is clearly established that all the shad li~Ngaani or six factors reveal Brahman alone. Hence brahmaNi samanvyaH |. Hence the conclusion is tat - that Brahman is shaastra prameyam. Brahman is the central subject matter of shaastram - samanvayaat, because of consistency or importance. Conversely the Vedanta is the pramaaNam for Brahman, corroborating the third suutra.

      With this we conclude the analysis of the word samanvayaat.