Author Topic: Vedaanta vaakyam-s come under this exceptional category  (Read 459 times)

Dr. Sadananda

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Vedaanta vaakyam-s come under this exceptional category
« on: February 22, 2015, 01:53:14 PM »
Vedaanta vaakyam-s come under this exceptional category


      Now the question is do the vedaanta vaakyam-s come under this exceptional category giving benefit directly or they must be connected to kaaryabodhaka vaakyam-s as the puurvapakshii-s claim. A vedaantin claims that all the siddhabodhaka vaakyam come under the exceptional cases giving directly the utility prayojanam-s. For this Vedanta itself is the pramaaNa since it makes it very clear that j~naana maatreNa moksha phalam bhavati. One need not join this knowledge with any kaaryabodhaka vaakyam since knowledge alone can give the moksha which is the purushhaartha. Where it is said? Almost in every upanishad this is mentioned.

      Ishavasya Upanishad- shloka 7
      yasmin sarvaaNi bhuutaani aatmaa eva abhuut vijaanataH |
      tatra ko mohaH kaH shoka ekatvam anupashyataH ||
     
      When a person clearly knows the aatmaa which is the substratum of everything after that mere knowledge where is the grief and where is the delusion? Hence j~naana maatreNa shoka moha nivR^ittiH, sa.nsaara nivR^ittiH, moksha praaptiH | By mere knowledge grief, delusion and sa.nsaara are gone, one gets liberated.

      Kena Upanishad - shloka 2-4
      pratibodha-viditam matam amR^itatvam hi vindate |
      aatmanaa vindate viiryam vidyayaa vindate amR^itam.h ||
     
      With the emphasis on vidyayaa vindate amR^itam, kevala j~naanamaatreNa (by mere knowledge) a person attains immortality.

      Katha upanishad shloka 2-2-12
      eko vashii sarva-bhuuta-antara-aatmaa ekam biijam bahudhaa yaH karoti | tam aatmastham ye anupashyanti dhiiraaH teshhaa.n sukha.n shaashvatam na itareshhaam.h ||

      The one who clearly recognizes (anupasyanti) Brahman as the very aatman, they will have eternal happiness and there is no other way than through this knowledge (na itareshhaam).

      Prashna Upanishad:
      The upanishad teacher, Pippalaada, says in the end: 6-6
      ...tam vedyaM purushha.n veda yathaa maa vo mR^ityuH parivivyathaaH iti |

      After knowing Brahman(purushham) there will not be any suffering due to death etc. One attains immortality.

      The students in the end after learning, prostrate to the teacher and prayerfully say: 6-8
      .. asmaakam avidyaayaaH paraM paaraM taarayasi iti |
      namaH parama R^ishhibhyo namaH parama R^ishhibhyaH ||
     
      Thus thanking the teacher they indicate that through knowledge they have gained the Supreme.

      Mundaka Upanishad: 3-2-9
      sa yo ha vai tat paramaM brahma veda brahma eva bhavati| na asya abrahma-vit kule bhavati |
      tarati shoka.n | tarati paapmaanam | guhaa-granthibhyo vimuktaH amR^itaH bhavati ||
     
      Knower of Brahman becomes Brahman. In his lineage everyone will have knowledge of Brahman. He is liberated from all the sorrows and all the sins. Free from all ignorance, he attains liberation from death.

      Mandukya Upanishad: mantra 12
      sa.nvishati aatmanaa aatmaanam yaH evam veda |

      One, saH, knows the aatmaa (paramaatmaa) by oneself (aatmanaa) yaH evam veda - by knowledge alone.

      Taittiriya Upanishad - Brahmanandavalli - 1-1
      brahmavit aapnoti param.h | tat eshha abhyuktaa | satyam j~naanam anantam brahma |
      yo veda nihitam guhaayaam parame vyoman saH ashnute sarvaan kaamaansaha|
     
      thus yaH veda nihitam guhaayaam, the one who knows Brahman as the aatmaa in the heart fulfils all the purushhaartha-s.

      Aitareya Upanishad: 3-1-3
      sarvam tat praj~naa-netram.h | praj~naane pratishhThitam.h | praj~naa-netraH lokaH |
       praj~naa pratishhThaa | praj~naanaM brahma |
     
      This every thing is nothing but the vision of the consciousness or knowledge. It is established in consciousness. It is the projection of the consciousness. It is nothing but consciousness.

      Chandogya Upanishad 7:1:3
      tarati shokam aatmavit - the knower of aatma crosses over all the sorrows - no need to do any action.
      Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: janaka-yaaj~navalkya sa.nvaadana- 4-4-12
      aatmaanam chet vijaaniiyaat ayam asmi iti puurushhaH |
      kim ichchhan kasya kaamaaya shariiram anusa.njvaret.h ||
     
      For the one who has known the aatmaa, there-afterwards, what desire he has, what action he has to do, and what suffering he will have to undergo in life? - meaning none. (This mantra has been exhaustively commented on by Shri Vidyaranya in his Panchadasi, 3-298)

      Kaivalya Upanishad: 10.
      sarva-bhuutastham aatmaanam sarva-bhuutaani cha aatmani |
      sampashyan brahma parama.n yaati na anyena hetunaa ||
     
      By merely knowing Brahman he attains moksha and by no other means (The first line is repeated in Bhagavad Giita 6-31. The second line is different iikshyate yoga-yukta- aatmaa sarvatra sama darshanaH |)

      Purusha-suukta: 7.veda aham etaM purushaM mahaantam | aaditya-varna.n tamasaH tu paare |
      sarvaani ruupaani vichitya dhiiraH |
      tam evam vidvaan amR^ita iha bhavati | na anyaH panthaaH ayanaaya vidyate |
     
      A slightly different version in Shvetashvatara Upanishad 3-8
      veda aham etam purushhaM mahaantam aaditya-varNam tamasaH parastaat.h |
      tam eva viditvaa atimR^ityum eti naanyaH panthaaH vidyate ayanaaya ||
     
      knowing this Brahman alone who is resplendent like the sun and which is beyond darkness of ignorance, one transcends death. There is no other path than knowledge.
     
      These are only examples taken one from each of the main upanishads. There are many in each.

      From smR^iti pramaaNa-

      Gita B.G 5-15,16
      aj~naanna aavR^itam j~naanam tena muhyanti jantavaH ||
      j~naanena tu tat aj~naanam yeshhaam naashitam aatmanaH|
      teshaam aadityavat j~naanam prakaashayati tat param.h ||
     
      All the problems are caused by ignorance therefore what is required is only j~naanam.

      Thus both shruti pramaaNam and smR^iti pramaaNam declare that the problem of human suffering is centered on ignorance and for such kind of problems knowledge is the only solution and not action.

      Hence Vedanta is siddha bodhaka vaakyam and it produces knowledge and that mere knowledge we get purushaartha. Therefore vedaanta vaakyaani pramaaNa bhuutaani.

      This is response to the first point of the puurvapakshii.